Knowing their differences means not giving the disease a chance to prevail over you. Turning to specialists, we decided to bring diseases with which arthrosis can be confused.
The source of the problem. Unlike arthrosis, which is a degenerative disease (also called cartilage wear out disease), arthritis is an inflammatory disease associated either with a malfunction of the immune system (rheumatoid arthritis), or with a previous infection – genitourinary, intestinal (reactive arthritis) or other reasons. Moreover, if arthrosis most often affects the joints of the legs (hip, knee) and the spine, which bear the maximum load, with rheumatoid arthritis, the joints of the hands, feet, wrists, as well as the elbow and knee joints (usually symmetrically) suffer. In reactive arthritis, joint inflammation is often asymmetric.
For arthritis, an acute onset of the disease is more characteristic – with sharp pain, swelling, redness of the skin around the diseased joint, and fever.
Treatment. The basis of the treatment of osteoarthritis is an integrated approach using non-drug and drug treatment methods. As a basic treatment, the use of chondroprotectors (drugs of biological action that affect the very nature of arthrosis and contribute to better cartilage nutrition) is indicated. It has been proven that the course intake of chondroprotectors can reduce pain and improve joint function. Anti-inflammatory and hormonal drugs in the case of arthrosis are used mainly during an exacerbation of the disease.
With rheumatoid or other inflammatory arthritis, long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs is indispensable.
The source of the problem. Osteoporosis is a systemic disease associated with a decrease in bone density, which often leads to fractures (including the hip neck), disability and even death of the patient. At the same time, arthrosis and osteoporosis are often combined with each other in the elderly.
Symptoms For the time being, osteoporosis may not manifest itself in any way. For decades, a person can consider himself healthy and not even suspect about the existing problem. An indirect manifestation of the disease is fractures with a low level of trauma (when falling from a height of your height, awkward movement) and a decrease in height by more than 2 cm per year or 4 cm compared to the height that you had in your youth, which may indicate compression fracture of the vertebral bodies, which most often goes unnoticed by the patient.
Treatment. In osteoporosis, as a rule, there is a deficiency of calcium and vitamin D, which is necessary for its absorption. This deficiency can be replenished with the help of vitamin D intake, as well as with a diet with a high content of dairy products, fish, offal, nuts, cabbage, raisins, and prunes.
When combining osteoporosis with osteoarthritis, one cannot do without taking chondroprotective.
The source of the problem. Gout is a disease associated with metabolic disorders of special substances (purines), which leads to an excess of uric acid in the body and its deposition in joints and other tissues.
Symptoms Gout is characterized by acute attacks of joint pain, such as in the big toes, accompanied by inflammation and even fever. A pain attack usually develops in the evening or at night.
Arthrosis of the first toes is often confused with gout, which manifests itself as painful sensations in the joint (first during exertion, then at rest), crunching during movement, and joint deformation.
Treatment. With gout, medications are needed to lower the level of uric acid, as well as a special diet that completely excludes alcohol, strong tea, coffee, spices, hot snacks, and some vegetables (sorrel, spinach, legumes). Fried meats and meat soups rich in purines are also excluded from the menu.
However, with arthrosis, it is also undesirable to abuse fatty meat products. Attacks of gout can lead to the development of secondary arthrosis in the affected joint.
Gout is a disease that requires prompt diagnosis. This will help you avoid serious consequences and reduce the frequency of attacks. If not properly treated, gout begins to progress, and further development of the disease will lead to kidney problems and, as a result, possible hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a general reduction in life expectancy.
Only a medical examination will help to find out if you have gout or if it is another joint disease. Doctors do not always succeed in making the correct diagnosis and starting treatment quickly because of the nonspecificity of the symptoms, as well as for other objective reasons. We, patients, need to be patient and trust the professionals.
Risk factors for developing gout
The main risk factors, in addition to heredity, include the patient’s age and gender. Half of the people with gouty arthritis had people with the same disease in their family. Men (40-50 years old) are also at risk. Among the representatives of the stronger sex, the disease occurs 10 times more often than among women.
Gout is a rapidly aging disease. The availability of fast food, an abundance of beer and a sedentary lifestyle – all this leads to the fact that the disease began to be observed in 30-year-olds, which can confuse the doctor when making a diagnosis.
You can’t discount food. Being overweight can trigger gout. If you are diagnosed with this form of arthritis, your doctor will advise a therapeutic diet. Its goal is to eliminate foods high in purines. We are talking mainly about protein foods, baked goods.
The risk group includes people suffering from obesity, dyslipidemia. In addition to malnutrition, alcohol is a significant risk factor. It prevents the excretion of acid, which begins to accumulate in the body.
We list the diseases that provoke gout:
- kidney disease.
When risk factors are considered, the image of a person suffering from gout emerges. An overweight man over 40 years old, may also have complications such as hypertension and / or diabetes mellitus.
Certain medications, such as diuretics to lower blood pressure, also cause gout. There are restrictions on taking aspirin. For more information, contact your doctor.
Symptom of a gout attack
Over time, the disease progresses, which causes knee, elbow and interphalangeal joints to suffer. If nothing is done, then the person will experience severe pain with any movement of the affected joint.
You can also recognize gout by tofus (painless nodules). They come in different diameters and are located on the elbows, feet, hands.
First aid consists in drinking plenty of fluids (5-6 glasses of water per day). These manipulations will help remove excess acid from the body. It is also worth connecting medicines. If nothing is done about gout, then the disease can lead to deformation of the joints and further malfunction of the whole body. And the frequency of attacks will only increase.
How do you know if you have gout?
If you suspect that you have gout by symptoms, you should first contact your urologist and rheumatologist. Specialists will receive primary information about your health status, gender, type of activity. The next stage is a general biochemical blood test. With an exacerbation of the disease, the uric acid indicator increases sharply. These numbers will be visible in the analysis results.
When making the correct diagnosis, much attention is paid to the study of uric acid metabolism. The doctor monitors acid fluctuations: how much it is produced, how much is excreted. The uric acid content of 0.3 mmol / L is considered normal.
A high level of uric acid is observed in various pathologies. We can talk about psoriasis, hemoglobinopathy, myeloid leukemia. In the differential diagnosis, gout can be confused with ailments such as soft tissue infections, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis.
Blood and urine are also examined, and the ESR indicator is important. During the period of exacerbation of the disease, its amount increases.
Blood test results in the presence of a disease may show the following :
- the presence of protein above normal;
- jump in sugar;
- high creatinine levels against the background of renal dysfunction;
- lipoproteins and lipids are at a high level, their amount exceeds the norm;
- high levels of calcium.
The kidneys are also examined for gout. Problems only indirectly indicate gout, but their condition is taken into account in further treatment:
- protein particles (albumin) are excreted together with urine;
- impurities of blood or columnar epithelium are found in the urine.
There should be no protein in the urine. In a normal state, its traces are 0.025–0.1 g / day. Ideally, the color of urine should be straw yellow.
Ultrasound of the kidneys is widely used, and this is not accidental. The procedure will help eliminate the formation of urate calculi in the organ.
- secondary cysts resulting from tubulointerstitial nephritis;
- internal structures have blurred outlines;
- calcifications are present in the papillary zone of the kidney;
- the cortical zone has a hypoechoic structure.
An ultrasound can help identify gout. A study is carried out directly on the joint itself. The doctor can see two contours of the joint surface, and not one, as usual.
A reliable way to diagnose is to obtain crystals of uric acid salt by puncture of a joint or tofus. The doctor takes a sample of synovial fluid from the joints for further examination using polarizing microscopy. For various reasons, it is not always possible to carry out this analysis. You should consult your doctor about this procedure.
Radiography does not show results in the early manifestations of the disease. The presence of chronic urates indicates destruction. Instrumental diagnostics helps to identify defects in bone tissue. The radiograph shows seals around the joint (tophus).
At an early stage of the onset of the disease, cysts are formed that do not affect tissues. At the second stage, larger cystic changes around the joint are already noticeable. Some erosion is also visible. In the third stage of gout, erosion becomes larger, and soft tissues become denser.
In practice, there are cases of incorrect indicators in the analyzes. With proper preparation for donating blood/urine, you can increase the reliability of studies.
Modern diagnostic methods allow doctors to collect a complete picture of the history, prescribe an ultrasound scan, puncture, blood / urine tests and other instrumental studies to confirm the diagnosis. Knowing about the presence of gout, you can intelligently plan your life in order to minimize the risk of attacks and exacerbations of the disease.
This pain appears suddenly and disappears just as quickly. But you can’t ignore her.
What is gout
Most often, gout affects the joint of the big toe – one or both at once. But the disease is not limited only to the foot. This form of arthritis can affect absolutely any joint in your body: knees, ankles, elbows, wrists, fingers …
At first, the attacks go away rather quickly and sometimes may not recur for weeks or months. However, joint inflammation progresses. Each subsequent gout attack becomes longer and stronger, affecting more and more parts of the body. This is how chronic gouty arthritis occurs, which can one day lead to limited mobility and destruction of joints.
Why is this happening
Gout is caused by accumulated uric acid crystals in the joints. Gout Pictures Slideshow: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Gout. This acid, in turn, is a breakdown product of purines – substances that are part of some food and drinks. For example, meat, seafood or beer.
Normally, the body removes uric acid by dissolving it in the blood and then driving the blood through the kidneys, from where it is excreted in the urine.
But sometimes failures occur in this well-oiled mechanism.
There may be too much uric acid entering the bloodstream. Or maybe the kidneys are affected by disease and can’t cope with filtration. In this case, acid can build up in the body, forming sharp, needle-like crystals in joints or surrounding tissues. They are the ones that cause pain, swelling and chronic inflammation.
What leads to gout
Doctors list the most common Gout risk factors that can trigger the development of the disease.
If you like barbecue, but with something intoxicating, gout Gout diet: What’s allowed, what’s not already squints in your direction. Meat, especially red meat, contains a large amount of purines, which means that it increases the concentration of uric acid in the blood. And alcohol makes it difficult for the kidneys to work and prevents them from properly removing acid from the body.
Beer is especially dangerous: it contains a large amount of purines Beer drinking and its effect on uric acid – organic substances that are converted into uric acid in our body. Other products provocateurs of this form of arthritis are:
- By-products – hearts, stomachs and other offal.
- Smoked products.
- Some varieties of fish.
- Peas, lentils.
- Sweet carbonated drinks.
Typically, these two factors fire Gout. Symptoms and Causes at the age of 30-50 – at this age, most patients have their first gout attack.
Ever since women gained equal access to food with men, gouty arthritis has affected them too. True, gout comes to the weaker sex a little later – after menopause, when the level of uric acid in the female body begins to approach the male.
The more extra pounds, the higher the risks. In this case, the body produces more uric acid, and the kidneys are forced to filter more blood and may not be able to cope with the task.
In such conditions, the body increases the production of uric acid.
Hypertension, diabetes, kidney and heart disease can also increase the level of uric acid in the blood.
These include individual diuretics (in particular, those prescribed for the treatment of hypertension), as well as preparations containing salicylate.
If any of your close relatives have gout, your risks are increased.
How to treat gout
You may need to do more research:
- Take a blood test to find out the level of uric acid and creatinine, a protein that is a marker of kidney function.
- Take X-rays of the joint to rule out other causes of inflammation, such as trauma.
- Do an ultrasound scan to look for uric acid crystals in the joint.
- Make an analysis of the synovial fluid of the joint to determine all the same crystals of uric acid.
The necessary tests will again be prescribed by the doctor. If gout is confirmed, the doctor will prescribe medications. They fall into two categories:
- Drugs that relieve pain and prevent future attacks. These include both over-the-counter pain relievers (such as ibuprofen) and more serious prescription options. And also corticosteroids – in the form of tablets or injections.
- Drugs that prevent complications from gout. Some of them block the production of uric acid in the body, while others improve kidney function.
Medication is the most effective way to treat acute gout and prevent it from becoming chronic. But in order to make drug therapy more effective, it is necessary to supplement it with lifestyle changes. By the way, they are also the prevention of this type of arthritis.
What to do to avoid getting gout
Limit the consumption of foods high in purines: meat (especially red), offal, semi-finished products (sausages, sausages), smoked meats. Do not overuse alcohol and sweetened soda.
The fluid helps the body flush out excess uric acid.
This is essential to maintain a healthy weight. Just don’t overdo it. Physical overload or a diet too strict can be harmful, as it also forces the body to produce more uric acid.
According to Gout. Symptoms and Causes by experts at the Mayo Clinic, this sour milk reduces the risk of gout. This means that it can serve as an alternative to meat in terms of obtaining protein.
The prevalence of gout in the world ranges from 0.1% to 10% depending on the region: in developed countries, this disease is more common today than in developing countries. So, in European countries, gout occurs in 0.9–2.5% of the population, in the USA – in 4%, in Russia, official statistics say about 0.3% of patients.
In the 400s BC, Hippocrates first described the clinical symptoms of gout. At the end of the seventeenth century, the English physician Thomas Sydenham gave an accurate description of the disease and attacks of gouty arthritis.
Gout is a metabolic disease. This is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and is caused by the deposition of urate crystals in and around the joints. It occurs due to a chronic increase in the level of uric acid in the human body.
A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the development of gout. At the same time, the main risk factors are hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), genetics, dietary factors, medications, concomitant diseases and exposure to lead.
The disease manifests itself in pain attacks localized in the peripheral joint, but ultimately can lead to damage, deformation of the joints and the formation of tophus (abnormal thickening of the subcutaneous tissue).
However, French doctors, who were the trendsetters of medical fashion in Europe until the middle of the 20th century, did not advocate gout as a sign of giftedness. They believed that the disease was associated with excessive consumption of meat and alcoholic beverages.
The cause of the disease is a metabolic disorder
The development of gout can be affected by excessive consumption of food that contains a lot of purines (meat, fish and products from them) and fructose, as well as some hematologic factors, kidney disease, medication, obesity and psoriasis.
Recently, scientists have traced in young women the relationship between the development of the disease and plastic surgery (breast implants, adipose tissue transplant). And they came to the conclusion that after the cosmetic procedures, there may be a risk of gout, since in some cases the kidneys begin to fail in patients. This is the body’s immune response to the presence of foreign bodies.
The disease manifests itself as an acute attack of arthritis
The most common symptom of gout is attacks of acute gouty arthritis. In addition, those suffering from the disease develop tophuses (gouty nodes) – an accumulation of urate crystals in soft tissues, most often on the edges of the auricles, fingers and toes, the patellar bursa and the elbow joint. In most patients, the onset of the disease coincides with an acute attack of arthritis, which can occur suddenly. It is expressed in severe burning and pressing pain in one or more joints.
At the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to undergo an examination, which includes:
- general analysis of blood and urine;
- biochemical analysis – total protein, uric acid, creatinine;
- test of Reberg and Zimnitsky;
- puncture of the joints to obtain synovial fluid for research;
- X-rays of the affected joints;
- Ultrasound of joints and kidneys;
- MRI and computed tomography ..
Gout can be cured
For gout attacks, pain relievers, anti-inflammatory and targeted drugs are used. Among the traditional methods of treating gout are regimen, normalization of body weight, nutritional therapy and elimination of alcohol, physiotherapy.
Diet is important to prevent disease
If your family has cases of gout, then you are at risk. In this case, it is necessary to monitor the level of uric acid in the blood and regularly take tests, as well as adhere to a healthy lifestyle. People with increased body weight and, as a result, high blood pressure often suffer from gout. A healthy diet, limiting foods such as meat, seafood (shrimp, mussels), soybeans, lentils, peas and beans, plays a major role in preventing gout.
It is important to observe the drinking regime and drink at least 1.5 liters of liquid daily, it removes uric acid from the body. It is necessary to limit the consumption of salt and alcohol, as they interfere with the excretion of uric acid. To prevent gout, doctors recommend people at risk to arrange a fasting day once a week, during which meat and fish dishes are excluded. In addition, you should eat at least one orange a day and avoid strenuous physical activity.
Of course, the peculiarities of hormonal status are not the only cause of gout, but many factors can provoke this disease with the same frequency in both men and women. We will talk about them below.
The content of the article
What is gout in men
What causes gout in men
On the other hand, the concentration of uric acid in the blood also increases with violations of its excretion in the urine. This happens with various kidney pathologies and other conditions associated with the development of their function.
In the early stages, this metabolic imbalance does not manifest itself in any way – laboratory examination can reveal an increase in the concentration of uric
acid in the blood or urate crystals in the urine sediment, but there are no other symptoms of the disease.
Less commonly, hyperuricemia develops with tumor diseases, pathologically high physical exertion, sepsis (inflammation of the blood) – this is the so-called reactive gout.
How does gout manifest in men
When the acute symptoms of arthritis (against the background of taking medications, physiotherapy or other folk remedies for treating gout) in men subside, the disease enters the next phase – the interictal period. This is a period of relative well-being, in which a person may not be bothered by anything.
But if provoking factors are not excluded, the lifestyle has not been changed, and the prevention of exacerbations is not carried out – the gouty attack will arise again. With a wave-like alternation of interictal periods and exacerbations, the disease turns into a chronic tofus form. In this phase, in addition to the articular symptoms of gout in men, tophuses appear – deposits of urate salts. Topuses can be external, forming within the soft tissues, more often in the projection of the affected joints (they look like whitish-yellow rounded dense plaques), and internal, when salts are deposited directly in the joint cavity.
Another common symptom of gout in men is secondary damage to the urinary organs: an increased content of urate in the urine leads to their deposition in the bladder, ureters, but most often in the renal pelvis in the form of uric stones. Urolithiasis develops, often accompanied by secondary inflammation of the affected kidney – pyelonephritis.
Why is gout dangerous for men?
The consequence of gout in men can often be disability, because with constantly recurring inflammation in the affected joint, irreversible changes are formed, secondary degenerative arthrosis develops, which ultimately leads to persistent movement disorders in it. Topuses also entail not only a cosmetic defect, but also serious complications: they can spontaneously open up, suppurate, increasing the risk of purulent inflammation in a nearby joint.
Examination and diagnosis
Given the vivid and specific symptoms of the disease, it is quite easy to suspect gout. If the therapist or general practitioner has such suspicions, he refers the patient to a special examination, namely:
- biochemical analysis (will reveal an increase in the level of uric acid);
- a clinical blood test (will detect non-specific signs of inflammation);
- immunological and serological research (confirm the presence of an active inflammatory process, help distinguish gout from other diseases affecting the joints);
- X-ray, ultrasound and tomography of the joints (will help clarify the degree of pathological changes and not confuse gout with other joint diseases);
- Ultrasound of the kidneys and urography (in order to identify stones in the kidneys).
When the results of the examination confirm the shop doctor’s suspicions and the presence of gout is not in doubt, the patient is referred to a specialist rheumatologist. If a person develops a non-arresting gouty attack, he is subject to emergency hospitalization in a specialized medical institution.
How is gout in men treated?
The list of foods that should be excluded include:
- coffee, cocoa, chocolate;
- legumes and spinach;
- canned food and caviar;
- salted and spicy cheeses, sausages and smoked meats;
- confectionery with butter creams;
- red varieties of fish and meat;
- red wines and beer.
If, against the background of adherence to a diet, the symptoms of gout in men persist, medication is required.
In the phase of acute inflammation, when a gouty attack occurs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticosteroids (GCS) and drugs that affect the metabolism of uric acid are used.
GCS are anti-inflammatory hormones with high therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of gout. They are used both internally and peri-and intra-articular. In some cases, they can cause a number of undesirable phenomena, for example, systemic and local osteoporosis.
If, with a gouty attack of NSAIDs, GCS do not help, drugs are additionally prescribed that block the metabolism of uric acid by reducing the activity of a number of enzymes or slowing down the reabsorption of uric acid in the renal tubules and increasing its excretion from the body.
Treatment of gout in men in the interictal period consists in the appointment of specific therapy in order to prevent the formation and splitting of already existing crystals of sodium monourate. Such treatment is prescribed for frequent relapses of acute arthritis, the formation of the tophus, the development of urolithiasis.
Drugs with a similar effect include Allopurinol, which reduces the formation of uric acid in the body due to the blockade of certain enzymes, and Probenecid, which disrupts the reabsorption of uric acid in the renal tubules and enhances its excretion from the body in the urine. The latter is not recommended for use with existing kidney stones.
But how to treat gout in men if the diet has not brought the expected effect and the symptoms of the disease persist?
An excellent method of complex treatment of gout, allowing to enhance the effect of drugs, while reducing the duration of their intake and dosage, for many years has been physiotherapy, included in the standard of medical care for the treatment of this disease.
Cryotherapy, i.e. exposure to cold, has an excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effect in acute attacks of gouty arthritis. Like magnetotherapy, cryotherapy can be performed independently at home, without the help of medical specialists. The presence of such a device at home will help the patient to cope with the gouty attack if it has arisen at a time when it is impossible to get immediate medical attention.
Phonophoresis is the local administration of drugs using ultrasound. Allows you to achieve a high concentration of the drug at the point of administration with minimal systemic effects. In addition, the very effect of ultrasound also has a good anti-inflammatory effect due to the improvement of blood circulation.
Having considered the main symptoms of gout, the methods of its treatment and the peculiarities of the diet in men, I would like to emphasize once again that the main guarantee of successful prevention and victory over any ailment is, first of all, a healthy lifestyle.
Ask a doctor
There are still questions on the topic “Signs, causes and treatment of gout in men:”?
Ask your doctor and get a free consultation.