The first signs of rheumatoid arthritis were mentioned in the 19th century, but the causes of the pathology have not been completely studied until now. Autoimmune pathology – rheumatoid arthritis – symptoms in adults cause a variety of. The disease is associated with the activation of lymphocytes, which take healthy cells for pathogenic microorganisms and begin to destroy them.
Regular exposure to connective tissue and inter-articular fluid leads to the fact that the vein is dried. Inflammation appears, after which there are tumors and unbearable pain.
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Primary signs of the disease
Arthritis often bothers patients in the fall and winter, sometimes spring exacerbations occur. Provokes the disease hypothermia, as well as viruses and infections. Often rheumatoid pathology is exacerbated with intolerance to products or after surgery.
The very first symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in adults are mild, often do not cause much discomfort and indicate a general deterioration in well-being:
- severe weakness appears in the muscles;
- sweating increases at the slightest exertion;
- a person quickly gets tired and begins to lose weight;
- small jumps in body temperature occur.
As the disease progresses, pain in aching joints is gradually added to the symptoms. It is sometimes periodic, then constant.
Soreness in RA increases if anti-inflammatory drugs are taken. A similar thing happens with minor physical exertion.
The acute inflammatory process with arthritis is accompanied by a febrile condition, as well as an asymmetrical lesion of the small joints of the hands. In the morning, severe stiffness develops – the main sign of arthritis and arthrosis.
The main signs of RA
In the mornings, when arthritis enters the stage of enhanced development, the patient feels severe pain if he tries to move his injured limbs. Stiffness takes place after about 30-60 minutes.
Stiffness is associated with the accumulation of pathological fluid in the articular joints.
The disease progresses, and the joints change appearance: they become nodular, deformed, bend like walrus flippers or the neck of a swan. It affects not only small joints:
- often the disease spreads to the elbow and shoulder region;
- if the shoulder joint suffers, the temperature rises locally, mobility is limited;
- if the joints of the feet are affected, there is sharp pain when walking and running, the discomfort persists in any shoe;
- gait changes, joints are constantly in an inflamed state;
- at the last stages, the disease reaches the spinal column, symptoms appear if rheumatoid arthritis in adults has not been treated at all;
- knees and vertebrae of the neck suffer, which causes the function of straightening the legs, tilting the head in different directions.
Over the area of the diseased joint, the skin becomes dry, constantly peeling. Gastrointestinal function is gradually disrupted, the fragility of nails increases, hemorrhages under the skin appear. Gradually, pathology gets to other organs, affecting the kidneys, liver, and circulatory system.
Diagnosis of the disease
In the diagnosis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in adults with the appointment of subsequent treatment, laboratory tests and instrumental measures are used. Laboratory study indicators:
- General blood test. Decreased hemoglobin, elevated white blood cell count, Accelerated white blood cell sedimentation process.
- Biochemical analysis. The level of fibrinogen, sialic acids, and haptoglobin is increased, and the rate of C-reactive protein also increases.
- Specific markers of RA. Immune complexes of RA are formed when conducting a test for anticytrulline bodies, the result is positive, the disease is detected at an early stage. Synovial fluid is taken for analysis, which with rheumatoid arthritis changes color, monocytes are present in the composition.
Instrumental methods for diagnosing the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis with the appointment of treatment determine the degree of joint damage.
Instrumental diagnostics of RA
The most popular and useful way to diagnose arthritis is arthroscopy. An optical device is inserted into the joint cavity, a micro camera is installed on its tip, through which the doctor sees inflammation and degree of destruction of the joints. Using the tool, you can take tissue for analysis, send it to the laboratory in order to identify RA markers.
X-ray remains an important tool for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, determines the degree of destruction of the joints.
Scintigraphy is used to detect technetium, a substance that accumulates in sore joints. The higher its concentration, the more intense the process.
For the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis using the classic MRI method, which shows not only the destruction but also the deformation of the compounds. Ultrasound is used to diagnose pathologies of other organs.
Based on the data obtained – laboratory tests and instrumental diagnostics – the doctor makes a diagnosis. Concretize the patient’s complaints:
- the presence of morning stiffness for more than 40 minutes;
- arthritis of small joints;
- damage to both hands or feet;
- swelling on both sides of the joints of 3 of any groups (on the arms, legs).
If 3 or more factors combine, the doctor can safely diagnose RA,
Autoimmune processes are difficult to treat. This is due to the fact that it is not possible to identify the exact causes in RA. First, intensive symptomatic therapy is used. Then, medical measures are sent to restore damaged joints and strengthen them. For this, certain drugs are used:
- NSAIDs – analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs based on nimesil, ibuprofen. They quickly eliminate pain, stiffness, and help fight inflammation.
- Glucocorticosteroid drugs – hormonal drugs in the form of ointments, gels, and injections. It is prescribed for severe pain during the progression of the disease. Help with swelling and inflammation. Course treatment for a period of 3 to 12 months helps to forget about exacerbations.
- Calcium and Vitamin D are essential for strengthening bones. Without these substances, restoration of destroyed cartilage is impossible.
- Chondroprotectors – quickly, reliably restore cartilage tissue. Drugs normalize the position of deformed joints.
If the patient is not worried about the exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis, physiotherapy, and therapeutic exercises are prescribed. Together, these measures facilitate the course of the disease. Special therapies exist, such as Ayurveda and Tibetan treatments. Patients manage to get rid of RA with their help, but for this it is necessary to make considerable efforts.
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