Pathological changes in the musculoskeletal system of a person always painfully occur, and the lack of therapy can provoke partial immobility, leading to disability. Deforming osteoarthrosis of the foot is one of such pathologies. The disease manifests itself as an inflammatory process in the soft tissues, improper functioning of some systems leads to premature wear of cartilage.
The distal lower extremity consists of three parts contains 26 bones and even more joints. Enormous loads fall on this part of the leg, the foot can withstand the weight of the whole body and additional loads. Sometimes this leads to trauma to certain parts of the joint, which may be accompanied by deformation and the inflammatory process. People aged 40–50 years are prone to deforming osteoarthritis, although earlier cases of the disease are also encountered.
Etiology of the disease
Deforming osteoarthrosis of the joints of the feet develops against the background of past traumatic injuries. The disease does not form immediately, it can manifest itself several months or a year after a fracture. All this time, the patient will feel minor pain after exercise, which is more likely to be attributed to fatigue rather than osteoarthritis of the joints. According to statistics, in 50% of cases, a deforming ailment is formed after bruises, fractures, dislocations. The main causes of pathological changes in the foot:
- wearing uncomfortable shoes with a narrow toe with high heels, so pathologists are more susceptible to women;
- prolonged load on the joints of the foot;
- the presence of a flat, resting on the entire sole of the foot, without a notch;
- genetic features in the structure of joints;
- wide foot;
- metabolic disorders and endocrine diseases;
- foot tissues do not receive full blood supply;
- shortening of one of the lower extremities.
Primary degenerative-dystrophic pathologies, for example, arthrosis, polyarthritis, lead to the development of deforming osteoarthrosis. The formation of deformation of the joints of the foot is subject to individuals whose professional activity requires a long stay on their feet, for example, dancers, gymnasts, sellers, managers, postmen, builders, cleaners.
Stages of the development of the disease and clinic
Deforming osteoarthrosis has four degrees of development. At the very beginning of the development of the disease, the patient does not experience discomfort, there are no tangible signs of the disease. However, during physical exertion, working without a long rest, there is slight discomfort, which is attributed to fatigue. It is at this moment that it is important to understand that osteoarthrosis has begun to develop, especially if this symptom is not the first time to concern. Sometimes a slight pain may appear, to which, as a rule, the victims do not attach importance. Crunching in the fingers is another sign of an early-stage disease.
Osteoarthrosis of the 2nd degree of the foot is manifested by deformation, increased pain. During this period, the patient begins to deviate the thumb to the index. Pain sensations begin to arise not only during physical exertion but also during rest. The disease is accompanied by hyperemia in the metatarsophalangeal joint of the thumb. The joint begins to bulge to the side, in medicine this condition is called Halus valgus. The deformation of the big toes greatly complicates the selection of shoes.
A disease of 3 degrees is almost impossible to stop. This stage is characterized by the appearance of acute pain, which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can not cope with. The mobility of the foot is noticeably lost, the patient’s gait changes, lameness appears, a crunch during movement is heard by others. The 2nd – 5th toe is deformed. Further, deforming osteoarthrosis develops into the 4th degree of development, which is characterized by the loss of the supporting function of the foot. The load on the spinal column is not distributed correctly; as a result, degenerative changes in the joints of the spine begin. Visually visible nodular growths in the area affected by osteoarthritis of the joints.
Diagnosis and diagnostic signs of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease begins with a medical history, in order to establish the stage of the disease, the doctor will need to conduct some mobility tests. When examining, do not forget to mention the drugs that you started taking and say they help or not, this information will also be useful in making a diagnosis. In the presence of deforming osteoarthrosis of the foot joint, the deformation is visible visually, the doctor can immediately tell the patient what kind of disease he has.
To confirm the pathological condition, an X-ray method of research will be required. The resulting image allows you to determine the stage of development of deforming pathology. Diagnostic signs of the disease:
- at the first stage, the signs are doubtful, it is difficult to detect the presence of osteoarthrosis;
- the second stage is characterized by a slight narrowing of the joint space, osteophytes begin to form;
- the third degree is characterized by the growth of osteophytes, as a result of which not only the first finger is deformed, but also the remaining four;
- signs of the fourth stage: the joint space is absent, there are gross bone growths.
The results of an X-ray examination give the specialist the opportunity to prescribe a more effective treatment.
The main methods of therapy
At the initial stages of the development of deforming osteoarthrosis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. NSAIDs quickly relieve pain, which greatly alleviates suffering. Representatives of this group include Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Naproxen, Sulindak, Meloxicam, Analgin, Flurbiprofen, Tenoxicam. These agents are non-selective inhibitors that block the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Drugs have a negative effect on the gastrointestinal tract of the victim, they can not be abused.
With deforming osteoarthritis of the joints of the foot, it is recommended to take selective NSAIDs. Medicines are used in the presence of certain pathological processes, for example, inflammation. Selective NSAIDs do not affect the gastrointestinal tract so much, but negatively affect cardiac activity, and are able to increase blood pressure. Often prescribed “Celebrex”, “Preksizh”, “Arkosia”, “Denebol”, “Dynastat”.
Be sure to prescribe the use of chondroprotectors. Medications restore cartilage by regenerating cells, restoring blood circulation in the feet. In addition to drugs, therapeutic foot massage, physiotherapeutic procedures (electrophoresis, ultrasound, magnetotherapy, low-intensity laser irradiation, radon baths, phonophoresis, UHF), physiotherapy exercises are prescribed. Acupuncture, hirudotherapy, apitherapy are excellent. The treatment regimen and physiotherapy are selected individually.
The lack of a positive effect and the progression of the disease forces patients to turn to radical methods of treatment. If the joints of the foot are deformed so that even the use of the tire does not help, surgery should be performed to return to the normal anatomical position. The main operational measures are taken with deforming osteoarthrosis:
- In the second stage, in the presence of a small hallux valgus, it is recommended to carry out an arthroplasty surgery. With the disease, osteoarthrosis of the foot, treatment with this method involves the correction of the present deformity. The resulting cosmetic defect is removed, the function of the foot is restored.
- If severe deformation is observed, it should be treated with prosthetics of the affected joints. The surgeon removes bone growths, if necessary, puts prostheses. The surgery lasts about an hour.
When resorting to surgical methods of treatment, seriously approach the choice of a surgeon. If a doctor in a state clinic does not have a very good reputation, it is better to contact a private surgeon and avoid complications, such as infection, than later to spend even more.
Prevention of the disease should begin at an early age. Parents are required to monitor the health of the child. Children are recommended to walk on mowed grass, barefoot on sand, loose soil or a fleecy rug. When injuring the feet, after six months and years, it is necessary to conduct an x-ray examination to exclude the development of osteoarthritis. The examination should be carried out even in the absence of signs of osteoarthritis, as is known, the disease may not appear at the first stages of development. Adult patients should follow these guidelines to prevent the development of deforming osteoarthrosis:
- change your lifestyle, move more and eat right;
- lose weight;
- buy comfortable shoes that do not pinch your toes;
- the maximum height of the heel after the disease should be 3-4 cm.
Deforming osteoarthrosis of the feet is a pathology that inevitably progresses if measures are not taken. You should always take care of your health, pay attention to the intensity and nature of the pain. Timely detection of the disease gives a good prognosis and the absence of relapse in the future.
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