How can you know if you have diabetes is a question that surely you have asked yourself if you have relatives with diabetes or risk factors, we will help you discover it.How do I know if I have diabetes

Find out what is the diabetic profile, what are the symptoms you can present and how is the diagnosis of diabetes made.

1. How do you know if you have diabetes?

1.1. Diabetic profile: risk factors

According to the American Diabetes Association it is recommended to check the presence of diabetes from 45 years of age.




However, the check-up can be done at any age if you have a high body mass index, that is, greater than 25 or more and at least one risk factor such as the following:

  • Family history of diabetes (parents)
  • High risk for races (black skin, Native Americans, Asians, Pacific Island and Hispanic ethnic groups.
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin value of 5.7% or 6.4%
  • Impaired fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg /dl or impaired fasting glucose in previous analyzes.
  • Glucose tolerance test between 140 mg / dl to 199 mg / dl
  • History of gestational diabetes or childbirth of more than 4.1 kg
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Blood pressure (140 / mm Hg or use medication to control pressure)
  • Good HDL cholesterol less than 35 mg /dl, triglycerides greater than 250 mg /dl or both
  • Cardiovascular disease history
  • Sedentary
  • Other diseases related to insulin resistance (Severe obesity and acanthosis nigricans) )    

1.2. Diabetes symptoms

Diabetes may have no symptoms in some people and this leads to the development of complications until it is diagnosed.

According to the American Diabetes Association, other people can urinate a lot (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), weight loss, hunger (polyphagia), and blurred vision.  

People who develop type 2 diabetes may be more susceptible to infection. (two)

Even if you do not have symptoms, but if you have risk factors, it is important that you know how to diagnose diabetes below.

2. Diagnosis of diabetes

In the following table you will find the values ​​of the blood tests that indicate that you have diabetes, below you will find what each one consists of and how they are performed: 

Diabetes diagnosis
  Indicator   Value 
 Fasting plasma glucose    > at 126 mg / dl or 7 mmol / l
 Oral glucose tolerance test 2 hours    > at 200 mg / dl or 11.1 mmol / l
 Glycosylated hemoglobin   > 6.5% 
 Person with symptoms of hyperglycemia and plasma glucose value  > 200 mg / l 

 

If the result obtained is normal, it would be recommended that the person be evaluated again within 3 years. 

2.1. Laboratory tests for diabetes

women-tube-test

The diagnosis of diabetes is made when the fasting blood sugar or plasma glucose value exceeds 126 mg /dl or a glycosylated hemoglobin of 6.5% or more is present.

Glycosylated hemoglobin indicates the average values ​​of plasma glucose concentration in the previous 2 to 3 months.

In other words, this marker tells you how high your blood glucose was and how long it has been elevated, which is why it is related to long-term complications.

126 mg /dl and hemoglobin of 6.5% have been selected as the value from which complications such as sight, retinopathy, can be detected.



The value of 126 mg /dl must be found after fasting for at least 8 hours and found in two analyzes carried out on non-successive days.

Glycosylated hemoglobin has advantages that it does not require fasting, nor is it affected by stress and illness.

However, it is recommended that hemoglobin be used in conjunction with plasma glucose.

This is because glycated hemoglobin can be affected in the presence of anemia, use of vitamin C or E, and during pregnancy.

Other laboratory tests for diabetes that are used are plasma glucose at any time of the day and the oral glucose tolerance test.

In patients with symptoms of diabetes, a plasma glucose level of 200 mg /dl at any time of the day is sufficient for diagnosis and does not require a second test.

It can also be accompanied with glycated hemoglobin to know the severity of diabetes.

In the glucose tolerance test a value greater than 200mg / dl indicates diabetes.

The oral glucose tolerance test is performed in the morning after an overnight fast of at least 10 hours of food and alcohol.

During the test, 75 g of glucose dissolved in 250 to 300 ml of water should be drunk (1 glass-1 ½ glass)

The blood sample is taken at the time of drinking the liquid and 120 minutes after drinking it.

It is recommended to have a diet 3 days prior, which must be rich in carbohydrates that includes more than 150 gr of carbohydrates per day.

The test is performed with the patient sitting or lying down without effort, smoking should be avoided before and during the test.

The test is not used if there is a previous diagnosis of diabetes, gastric or intestinal disorders that influence absorption.

2.2. How is diabetes detected during pregnancy?

According to the University of Utah, women with risk factors should be tested at the first prenatal visit.

If there are no risk factors, and even if the previous values ​​are normal, recheck at week 24 to 28.

In pregnancy by means of a glucose tolerance test, fasting plasma glucose greater than 92 is considered together with a value of 180 mg /dl at 60 minutes, and 153 mg /dl at two hours.

If one or more of these factors are present, gestational diabetes is diagnosed. 

3. Classification of diabetes

3.1. Diabetes type 1

In this type of diabetes, the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas occurs, leading to insulin deficiency. The cause is immune mechanisms.

It occurs in children, adolescents and young adults. The destruction of beta cells is rapid in infants and children but slower in young adults. 

3.2. Type 2 diabetes

It can present as insulin resistance or as insulin deficiency with insulin resistance. It is associated with metabolic syndrome.

Patients respond to the use of medications, however, if the disease progresses, insulin secretion is reduced and insulin may be required.



3.3. Gestational diabetes

Glucose intolerance that appears during pregnancy.

A person who is diagnosed with gestational diabetes can continue with elevated plasma glucose and develop type 2 diabetes after pregnancy.

3.4. Other types of diabetes

  • Exocrine pancreatic diseases (pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis)
  • Endocrinopathies (Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly)
  • Produced by drugs such as glucocorticoids 
  • Genetic defects
  • Infections like rubella, mumps

4. How to prevent diabetes?

Before the diagnosis of diabetes there are several stages that are a possibility to initiate changes in lifestyle and prevent the development of diabetes.  

Stages include increased blood sugar, insulin resistance, and decreased ability to release insulin.

Weight reduction of between 5 to 10% and exercise can prevent or delay the development of diabetes when impaired fasting glucose or glycated hemoglobin is found between 5.5 and 6%.

A diet with plant-based foods promotes blood sugar control by including low-glycemic foods, high in fiber and with a healthy fat content to prevent diabetes. How do I know if I have diabetes

 SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

How do I know if I have diabetes, How do I know if I have diabetes,How do I know if I have diabetes

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