The hip joint is a large bone joint that fastens the femur and pelvic bones, gives the limbs the ability to bend, unbend, and deflect. Hip pain is a symptom of many inflammatory, infectious, degenerative and other diseases. The causes of hip pain vary greatly, so a thorough diagnosis is indispensable.
Causes of Hip Pain
Pain in the joint in the thigh area is not the same – acute and regular, constant and periodic. Most often, discomfort occurs in people over 50 years old, although they can even occur in children. The causes of pain in the hip joint vary widely. Most often, coxarthrosis is a degenerative disease with the thinning of the articular cartilage, in which the bones begin to come closer to each other and deform.
Pain in the right and left hip joints can have other causes:
- injuries – fractures, cracks, dislocations;
- connective tissue damage and autoimmune pathologies;
- skeletal development disorders;
Sometimes the cause of quite severe pain is the defeat of other parts of the body (for example, the spine, sacrum, intestines). In this case, the treatment should affect the main problem, only then the hip joint will no longer bother the person.
Injuries as a cause of pain
Acute pain covering only one hip joint can be a symptom of a traumatic lesion. It is difficult for a healthy person to break a hip joint, but in the presence of osteoporosis, this happens regularly. Basically, the diagnosis of “femoral neck fracture” is given to women over 60-65 years of age, in whom menopause and disturbances in the functioning of hormone-producing organs become the cause of osteoporosis. If the neck of the thigh hurts after a fall, a bruise, it is necessary to carry out instrumental diagnostics!
A car accident is the cause of a hip fracture. There is a sharp pain in the hip joint, as there is pinching of the nerves.
Also, pain on the right or left appears on the background:
- contusion of articulation of bones in the fall, direct impact;
- traumatic dislocation of the hip;
- congenital dislocation of the hip.
Birth injuries, bone deformities during intrauterine development can provoke a congenital dislocation. Without treatment, the baby’s legs in the future may have different lengths, coxarthrosis develops early.
Provocative diseases in adults and children
If the symptoms recur, or the pain in the hip joint becomes chronic, they are often caused by systemic pathologies or directly diseases of the hip joint.
In addition to coxarthrosis, the hip joint hurts for the following reasons:
- Purulent arthritis. It occurs due to infection of the thigh area with pyogenic bacteria. Any movement due to acute pain becomes impossible, the affected area turns red, swells.
- Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. The reason is a violation of blood circulation in the hip joint. The disease occurs mainly at a young age. Without treatment, there is a risk of muscle atrophy, tendons, a person becomes disabled.
- Ossifying myositis. It comes from inflammation of the muscles and connective tissue, is associated with heredity or occurs after an injury.
- Ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis). It causes inflammatory damage to the bone joint, leads to a restriction of mobility due to contamination of the joint cavity.
- Dissecting osteochondritis of the thigh. Hip cartilage exfoliates, tissue necrosis often develops.
- Bursitis and synovitis. In this case, severe pain in the hip zone is associated with inflammation of the synovial bag or capsule.
Why do hip joints hurt from one or two sides, what other conditions exist?
The cause may be such diseases:
- Reiter’s syndrome;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- damage to the spine with the radicular syndrome;
- deformations of the feet, legs, knees;
In pregnant women, the cause of pain in the joint on the right or left often becomes symphysitis – inflammation of the pubic symphysis with a divergence of the pubic bones. In rare cases, tumors, a gout of the hip joint can provoke symptoms in people.
Symptoms of pathologies
Signs of illness, as well as treatment, vary greatly. The pain in the hip joint after a serious injury is severe, sharp, localized in the thigh area. Tissues swell around, lameness is observed. The latter, with a slight injury, passes quickly. If there is a dislocation, fracture, leg movements are limited or impossible.
With a hip fracture, the symptoms are as follows:
- increased pain during movement;
- irradiation of sensations into the inner surface of the leg;
- swelling, bruising;
- the clicking of the joint;
- numbness of the muscles.
With inflammation of the bursa, synovial membrane, the pain is accompanied by a burning sensation, worse when walking. With osteochondrosis, tingling, goosebumps appear in the hip joint. Coxarthrosis is accompanied by aching pain, which is stronger in the morning and disappears during the day. With rheumatoid arthritis, the hip joint hurts with lumbago, the temperature inside it rises, muscle stiffness appears.
Burning, pulling pain can be signs of ankylosing spondylitis, with sensations being given to the pelvis, sacrum, and become stronger at night. The area of the hip joint aches with chronic inflammatory diseases – arthritis, gout (without exacerbation).
Diagnosis of diseases
Treatment for any of these symptoms should be started immediately after the diagnosis is made by an orthopedist, surgeon, traumatologist. The doctor will be able to assume damage to the left or right hip joint already at the initial examination. During passive flexion and extension, a pain syndrome appears, burning sensation, movements are limited, side abductions are especially difficult.
The hip joint is quite deep, so the main diagnostic methods are instrumental examinations:
In some cases, additional diagnostic measures have to be taken. So, with infectious and purulent processes, a synovial fluid study is prescribed. If malignant tumors are suspected, a biopsy is performed. In case of damage to the vessels of the hip area, an ultrasound with dopplerography is required. Before the treatment of pain in the hip joint, a rheumatoid factor test is necessary to rule out rheumatism.
Hip pain treatment for injuries and infections
In infants, congenital dislocation of the hip joint is treated. To do this, use the Freyk pillow, spacers – special orthopedic appliances that help keep the legs in the correct position. The duration of treatment can be 6-8 months, if it does not help, you will have to perform surgical reduction of the bone.
With a hip fracture, surgical treatment is indicated, since conservative measures most often do not help. Install pins, screws or perform endoprosthetics. Only if there are contraindications do they apply bandages on the leg from the waist to the heel. Unfortunately, in old age, this rarely leads to fusion of the hip bone, and the patient cannot walk or even sit normally.
What to do if the hip joint is very sore due to infectious inflammation? In this case, antibiotic treatment is performed. The drugs are injected, injected dropwise or directly into the cavity of the hip joint. Also, treatment involves limiting leg mobility so that recovery is faster. To relieve symptoms, analgesics and anesthetics are injected into the joint. With purulent arthritis, an operation is performed to remove abscesses and rinse the joint cavity with antibiotics.
The choice of methods of drug treatment is carried out only by a doctor, depending on the type of disease. Aching pain is usually well stopped by taking analgesics – Revalgin, Spazgan, although often the sensations quickly return. If the leg hurts sharply, severely, blockade with anesthetics will have to be entered into the area of the hip joint. Treatment of chronic hip pathologies should be carried out with regular courses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – only they will remove the recurring symptoms, although they will not affect the course of the disease itself. With coxarthrosis, hormonal drugs (Kenalog, Diprospan) are usually administered, which permanently stop inflammation and pain.
Treatment of diseases of the hip joint can be carried out by such means:
- Muscle relaxants (Sirdalud, Midokalm). They are used to reduce muscle spasm, which enhances pain.
- Diuretics (Lasix, Furosemide). They help relieve severe swelling, covering soft tissues.
- Vitamin preparations. Improve the nutrition of the hip joint, accelerate biochemical reactions.
- Chondroprotectors (Arthra, Don, Structum). Replenish the deficit of chondroitin, glucosamine, help restore damaged cartilage.
If the child regularly has a hip joint pain, and the diagnosis of aseptic necrosis is confirmed, the basis of treatment is the administration and injections of vascular preparations. Medicines enhance blood microcirculation, metabolism and help tissues regenerate.
Orthopedic appliances and physiotherapy
Treatment for diseases of the hip joint includes the use of orthopedic products. Most often they are used after injuries when full or partial immobilization is needed for several weeks or even months. So, for fractures use an orthosis of rigid fixation, which, unlike gypsum, does not cause irritation and allergies.
If a person has to lie for a long time, he definitely needs an Anti-decubitus mattress. During rehabilitation after an injury, walkers, canes, crutches are used for support. With symphysitis, pregnant women are recommended to wear a pelvic corset with tight ribs. It is equally important during treatment and for prevention to wear orthopedic shoes that unload the foot.
Physiotherapy is also indicated to improve the condition of the hip joint. Such treatment eliminates symptoms, anesthetizes, optimizes blood circulation. With the course of therapy, inflammation decreases, swelling disappears, the process of tissue repair starts. Laser therapy has proven itself best – the laser beams warm the tissues up to 10 cm thick, quickly remove the pain, and stop the inflammation.
Other applicable physiotherapy techniques are:
- shock wave therapy;
- turpentine baths.
It is also recommended to regularly use the acupressure acupuncture applicator at home – it enhances blood circulation and helps reduce pain. In the acute stage of the disease, it is used for 5 minutes up to 5 times/day; in the chronic stage, the time is increased to 20 minutes three times/day.
Alternative treatment of pain in the hip joint
Alternative medicine can answer how to treat diseases of the hip joint. Alternative treatment must be combined with conservative treatment, otherwise, it will not bring the desired effect. External methods are less effective because the location of this joint of bones is very deep. From external measures, you can apply the effect of massage.
The treatment is as follows:
- mix evenly mint, hop cones, St. John’s wort;
- pour a collection spoon of 100 ml of petroleum jelly melted in a water bath;
- insist in a warm place for 2 days;
- warm the mass again, strain;
- apply for gentle rubbing with massage movements.
In the treatment of the hip joint, baths can be used – they quickly relieve pain. Mint broth, needles (50 g of raw materials per liter of water) are poured into warm water, take a bath for 15 minutes, repeat the procedure every other day, do 10 sessions. You also need to take the following pain medications inside:
- ½ cup lilac flowers pour 250 ml of vodka, insist 10 days, drink a teaspoon three times/day for 14 days;
- mix a tablespoon of birch buds, linden flowers, brew 300 ml of boiling water, drink 150 ml twice / day a month;
- boil 1 kg of beef bones, pour the broth into portioned containers, eat 250 g of such “jelly” daily.
With the defeat of the hip joint, therapeutic exercises are indicated. The articulation of the bones must necessarily move, then a larger volume of intraarticular fluid will be produced in it. As a result, the quality of nutrition and the rate of tissue repair will increase. The set of exercises is selected individually, for different diseases it is not the same (according to the permissible load). At first, the number of repetitions is small, after which it increases. You can not make sudden movements – they can provoke a new attack of pain.
In some cases, surgical treatment of the hip joint is required. It is indicated for injuries, advanced forms of coxarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, which cause severe deformation of the bones. They also operate on a limb with the appearance of abscesses (abscesses) in the joint cavity or in soft tissues.
The most popular types of operations are as follows:
- installation of pins;
- arthroscopy ;
Joint Disease Prevention
Hip pain can be prevented if timely measures are taken to prevent diseases. Serious loads on the thigh bone and articulation should be avoided, beware of bumps, falls, and do not lift weights. Already in the initial stage, it is necessary to treat any inflammatory diseases in the body, and also to control vascular problems.
Gymnastics, exercise therapy, yoga, swimming will help strengthen the hip joint. It is important to maintain a normal weight so as not to overload the neck of the thigh and the entire femoral joint. To reduce body weight, a diet is used with the rejection of fatty, sweet, flour foods, smoked meats, and salted foods. It is also useful for the hip to wear preventative bandages, comfortable shoes, and insoles. If the first unpleasant symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor and conduct treatment in a timely manner – this will help to avoid surgery.