Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is believed to be due to a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. In many cases, individuals have a number of these factors that are likely to contribute to the development of the disease. In this article, we consider the causes of rheumatoid arthritis.
Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Inherited genetic susceptibility.
It was initially noted that patients with a family history of rheumatoid arthritis are more likely to suffer from this condition, indicating a family connection.
Since the introduction of more advanced technologies, several genes have been identified that are thought to be associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis. In fact, it is believed that several genetic markers often contribute to each case.
The HLA-DRB1 gene is the most prevailing genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis. There are many gene variants, and some of them are associated with an increased risk of disease. In addition, the tyrosine phosphatase 22 protein gene (PTPN22) is also associated with a higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, although it is unclear how this occurs.
However, it is believed that there are many more genetic markers that have not yet been identified, which with further research may lead to a more complete understanding of the disease and initiate targeted treatment and prevention strategies.
RA is more common in women than in men, and the disease tends to be in remission during pregnancy, suggesting that hormonal factors may play a role in the presentation and regulation of the disease. One hormone that can be involved in the onset of rheumatoid arthritis includes prolactin, which is responsible for milk production and increases inflammation.
In addition, the incidence in young women who took oral contraceptive pills is about half that of those who never took the pill.
Causes of rheumatoid arthritis. For a long time, it was thought that some kind of infection probably caused RA. But after many studies, it is obvious that there is no infection or agent that causes the disease. However, many of the cases presented recently had some kind of infection, and it is believed that an immune response to several different types of infection can lead to symptoms of arthritis.
In rare cases, immunization can cause rheumatoid arthritis, which is thought to be the result of a controlled infection given during vaccination.
RA is also more common in people who are already affected by an autoimmune disease, which is probably due to a similarity in the pathology of the conditions.
A history of smoking is a significant risk factor for the development of the disease, and may also affect the course or progression of the disease.
Many smokers with RA are hard to stop, as this can help reduce symptoms, such as joint pain and sensitivity. However, patients who continue to smoke are at risk of extraarticular disease. In which nodules, lungs or blood vessels may also be affected.
There is also some evidence that certain foods or diets may influence the likelihood that they will be affected. For example, people with a certain diet who get a high proportion of red meat and a low vitamin C and vitamin A content are at increased risk of developing RA.
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